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        77國集團

        77國集團簡介
          77國集團 (Group of 77 -- G77) 是發展中國家在維護自己經濟權益的斗爭中逐漸形成和發展起來的。第二次世界大戰后,亞非拉廣大發展中國家雖然獲得了政治上的獨立,但在經濟上并沒有獲得真正的獨立,依然受國際經濟舊秩序的影響。1963年第18屆聯合國大會討論召開貿易和發展會議時,73個亞、非、拉國家和南斯拉夫、新西蘭共同提出一個聯合宣言,形成“75國集團”。后來肯尼亞、韓國、越南加入,新西蘭宣布退出。1964年6月15日在日內瓦召開的第一屆聯合國貿易和發展會議上,發達國家和發展中國家在一些重大問題上產生尖銳分歧。77個發展中國家和地區聯合起來,再次發表了《77國聯合宣言》,要求建立新的、公正的國際經濟秩序,并以此組成一個集團參加聯合國貿易和發展會議的談判,因而該集團被稱為77國集團。雖然后來成員國逐漸增加,但集團名稱仍保持不變。
          1967年,77國集團第一次部長級會議在阿爾及利亞舉行,會議通過了該組織的憲章。該集團的宗旨是在國際經濟領域內加強發展中國家的團結和合作,推進建立新的國際經濟秩序,加速發展中國家的工業化進程。
          該集團組織松散,不設總部,也無常設機構,沒有章程和財務預算,議事時采取協商一致的原則作出決定。但在主要的國際經濟機構中都有它的組織。
        2005年6月15日,在卡塔爾首都多哈出席“77國集團+中國”第二屆南方首腦會議開幕式的各國領導人合影。 放大2005年6月15日,在卡塔爾首都多哈出席“77國集團+中國”第二屆南方首腦會議開幕式的各國領導人合影。
          它在聯合國、貿易和發展會議、工業發展組織中的活動尤為活躍。每屆聯大和貿發會議舉行之前該集團通常舉行部長級會議,協調立場,研究對策,部長級會議是該組織的最高權力機構。主要出版物有《77國集團通訊》等。
          該組織成立多年來,已成為發展中國家在國際經濟組織中共同利益的代表。它在促進南南合作、推動南北對話、為維護自己的正當權益以及改變不合理的國際經濟秩序進行了不懈的努力,并取得了可喜的成就,在聯合國貿易和發展會議主持的談判中達成了一系列對發展中國家有利的國際公約和協定。
          中國不是77國集團成員,但一貫重視發展同77國集團的合作,支持77國集團的正義主張和合理要求,并與其保持良好的合作關系。中國曾以特別客人或觀察員的身份多次出席77國集團的部長級會議。自20世紀90年代以來,中國同該集團的關系在原有基礎上有了較大的進展,形成了“77國集團+中國”的新合作模式,目前中國已全面參加與該集團的所有會議和活動。2000年4月,來自77國集團122個成員國以及中國的高級代表團在古巴首都哈瓦那舉行首屆南方首腦會議。2005年6月,“77國集團+中國”第二屆南方首腦會議在卡塔爾首都多哈舉行。
          截至2005年5月,77國集團有成員國134個。
        About the Group of 77
        Establishment:
        The Group of 77 (G-77) was established on 15 June 1964 by seventy-seven developing countries signatories of the “Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries” issued at the end of the first session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in Geneva. Beginning with the first “Ministerial Meeting of the Group of 77 in Algiers (Algeria) on 10 – 25 October 1967, which adopted the Charter of Algiers”, a permanent institutional structure gradually developed which led to the creation of Chapters of the Group of 77 with Liaison offices in Geneva (UNCTAD), Nairobi (UNEP), Paris (UNESCO), Rome (FAO/IFAD), Vienna (UNIDO), and the Group of 24 (G-24) in Washington, D.C. (IMF and World Bank). Although the members of the G-77 have increased to 130 countries, the original name was retained because of its historic significance.Aims:
        The Group of 77 is the largest intergovernmental organization of developing states in the United Nations, which provides the means for the countries of the South to articulate and promote their collective economic interests and enhance their joint negotiating capacity on all major international economic issues within the United Nations system, and promote South-South cooperation for development.Back to TopStructure:
        The operation and modalities of work of the G-77 in the various Chapters have certain minimal features in common such as a similarity in membership, decision-making and certain operating methods. A Chairman, who acts as its spokesman, coordinates the Group’s action in each Chapter. The Chairmanship, which is the highest political body within the organizational structure of the Group of 77, rotates on a regional basis (between Africa, Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean) and is held for one year in all the Chapters. Currently Pakistan holds the Chairmanship of the Group of 77 in New York for the year 2007. Ambassador Munir Akram is Pakistan's Permanent Representative to the United Nations and Chairman of the Group of 77 in New York.
        The South Summit is the supreme decision-making body of the Group of 77. It is convened once in every five years. The First and the Second South Summits were held in Havana, Cuba, on 10 – 14 April 2000 and in Doha, Qatar, on 12 – 16 June 2005, respectively. In accordance with the principle of geographical rotation, the Third South Summit is due to be held in Africa in 2010.
        The Annual Meeting of the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Group of 77 is convened at the beginning of the regular session of the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York. Periodically, Sectoral Ministerial Meetings in preparation for UNCTAD sessions and the General Conferences of UNIDO and UNESCO are convened. Special Ministerial Meetings are also called as needed such as on the occasion of the Group’s 25th anniversary (Caracas, June 1989), 30th anniversary (New York, June 1994), and 40th anniversary (Sao Paulo, Brazil, June 2004). Other Sectoral Ministerial Meetings in various fields of cooperation of interest to the Group are convened, in order to pursue South-South cooperation. Starting in 1995, the Group convened a series of sectoral meetings in the following fields:
        Sectoral Review Meeting of the Group of 77 on Energy, Jakarta, Indonesia, 5 – 7 September 1995; Sectoral Meeting of the Group of 77 on Food & Agriculture, Georgetown, Guyana, 15 – 19 January, 1996; South-South Conference on Trade, Investment and Finance, San Jose, 13 – 15 January 1997; High-level Conference on Subregional and Regional Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries, Bali, Indonesia, 2 – 5 December 1998; South-South High-level Conference on Science and Technology of the Group of 77, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 27 – 30 October 2002; High-level Conference on South-South Cooperation, Marrakech, Morocco, 16 – 19 December 2003; High-level Forum on Trade and Investment, Doha, Qatar, 5 – 6 December 2004; Open-ended Intergovernmental Study Group Workshop on the Trade and Development Bank, New York, 2 – 3 May 2005; Group of Experts Meeting on Development Platform for the South, Kingston, Jamaica, 29 – 30 August 2005; Meeting of the Ministers of Science and Technology of the Member States of the Group of 77, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3 September 2006
        In addition to the Sectoral Meetings, the Intergovernmental Follow-up and Coordination Committee on Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries (IFCC), which is a plenary body consisting of senior officials, meets once every two years to review the state of implementation of the Caracas Programme of Action (CPA) adopted by the Group of 77 in 1981 and the progress made in the implementation of the outcomes of the South Summits in the field of South-South cooperation.
        To date IFCC has held eleven sessions:
        IFCC-I (Manila, Philippines, 23 – 28 August 1982); IFCC-II (Tunis, Tunisia, 5 – 10 September 1983); IFCC-III (Cartagena, Colombia, 3 – 8 September 1984); IFCC-IV (Jakarta, Indonesia, 19 – 23 August 1985); IFCC-V (Cairo, Egypt, 18 – 23 August 1986); IFCC-VI (Havana, Cuba, 7 – 12 September 1987): IFCC-VII (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 31 July – 5 August 1989); IFCC-VIII (Panama City, Panama, 30 August – 03 September 1993); IFCC-IX (Manila, Philippines, 8 – 12 February 1996); IFCC-X (Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 18 – 23 August 2001); IFCC-XI (Havana, Cuba, 21 – 23 March 2005);
        In accordance with the principle of geographical rotation, the Twelfth session of IFCC is due to be held in Africa in 2007.Back to TopFinance:
        The activities of the Group of 77 are financed through contributions by Member States in accordance with the decision of the First South Summit.Back to TopActivities:
        Besides resolution and decisions initiated by the Group of 77 in the UN General Assembly and its Committees as well as various UN bodies and specialized agencies, the Group of 77 produces joint declarations, action programmes and agreements on development issues. The Group adopted the following declarations/documents since its first Ministerial Meeting held in Algiers in 1967:
        The Charter of Algiers, Algiers, 10 – 25 October 1967; Lima Declaration, Lima, 25 October – 7 November 1971; Manila Declaration, Manila, 26 January – 7 February 1975; Report on the Conference on Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries, Mexico City, 13 – 22 September 1976; Arusha Programme for Self-Reliance and Framework for Negotiations, Arusha, 12 – 16 February, 1979; Communiqué on the Special Ministerial Meeting of the Group of 77, New York, 11 – 14 March 1980; Report on the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Group of 77 on Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries in Continuation of the Ministerial Meeting of the Group of 77, New York, March 1980, and Vienna, 3 – 7 June 1980; Communiqué on the Special Ministerial Meeting of the Group of 77, New York, 21 – 22 August 1980; The Caracas Programme of Action on ECDC, Caracas, 13 – 19 May 1981; Ministerial Declaration on the Global System of Trade Preferences among Developing (GSTP), 8 October 1982; The Buenos Aires Platform, Buenos Aires, 5 – 9 April 1983; Declaration on the Global System of Trade Preferences (GSTP), New Delhi, July 1985; Brasilia Declaration on the Launching of the First Round of Negotiations within the Global System of Trade Preferences among Developing Countries, Brasilia, 22 – 23 May 1986; The Cairo Declaration on Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries (ECDC), Cairo, 18 – 23 August 1986; Havana Declaration, Havana, 20 – 25 April, 1987; Agreement on a Global System of Trade Preferences among Developing Countries (GSTP), Belgrade, 11 – 13 April 1988; Twenty-fifth anniversary Ministerial Declaration (Caracas Declaration), Caracas, 13 – 23 June 1989; Tehran Declaration, Tehran, 19 – 23 November 1991; Tehran Declaration on the Second Round of the Global System of Trade Preferences among Developing Countries (GSTP), Tehran, 21 November 1991; Recommendations and conclusions of the Group of Experts on the Review and Evaluation of the Implementation of the Caracas Programme of Action (New York, 5 – 9 August 1991); Thirtieth Anniversary Ministerial Declaration, New York, 24 June 1994; Ministerial Statement on “An Agenda for Development”1994; Recommendations and conclusions of the Sectoral Review Meeting of the Group of 77 on Energy (Jakarta, Indonesia, 5 – 7 September 1995); The Midrand Declaration, Midrand, 28 April 1996; Recommendations and conclusions of the Sectoral Meeting on Food & Agriculture of the G-77 (Georgetown, Guyana, 15 – 19 January 1996); The San Jose Declaration and Plan of Action on South-South Trade, Investment and Finance, San Jose, 13 – 15 January 1997; The Bali Declaration and Plan of Action on High-level Meeting on Subregional and Regional Economic Integration, Bali, 2 – 5 December 1998; Recommendations and conclusions of the High-level Advisory Meeting on the South Summit (Jakarta, Indonesia, 10 – 11 August 1998); The Marrakech Declaration, Marrakech, 16 September 1999; Final Report on the Group of 77 Meeting of Eminent Personalities to advise on the preparations for the First South Summit, Georgetown, 6 – 7 December 1999; Declaration of the South Summit and the Havana Programme of Action, Havana, 10 – 14 April 2000; Tehran Consensus adopted by IFCC-X, Tehran, 18 – 23 August 2001; Declaration by the Group of 77 and China on the Fourth WTO Ministerial Conference at Doha, Qatar 9 – 14 November 2001; Recommendations and conclusions of the Meeting of the High-level Advisory Group of Eminent Personalities and Intellectuals on Globalization and its Impact on Developing Countries: Agreed conclusions and recommendations (Geneva, 12 – 14 September 2001); The Dubai Declaration for the Promotion of Science and Technology in the South, 27 – 30 October 2002; Declaration by the Group of 77 and China on the Fifth WTO Ministerial Conference, Cancun, Mexico, 10 – 14 September 2003; The Marrakech Declaration on South-South Cooperation and the Marrakech Framework of the Implementation of South-South Cooperation, Marrakech, 16 – 19 December 2003; The Sao Paulo Declaration, Sao Paulo, 11 – 12 June 2004; Fortieth Anniversary Ministerial Declaration, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 11 – 12 June 2004; Recommendations and conclusions of the Ad-hoc Group on the Performance, Mandates and Operating Modalities of the G-77 Chamber of Commerce and Industry (G-77 CCI) (New York, 3 November and Doha, 3 – 4 December 2004); Conclusions and recommendation on the Group of 77 High-level Forum on Trade and Investment, Doha, Qatar, 5 – 6 December 2004; Recommendations and conclusions of the Open-ended Intergovernmental Study Group Workshop on the Trade and Development Bank (New York, 2 – 3 May 2005); Doha Declaration and Doha Plan of Action of the Second G-77 South Summit (Doha, Qatar, 12 – 16 June 2005); Recommendations and conclusions of the Group of Experts Meeting on Development Platform for the South (Kingston, Jamaica, 29 – 30 August 2005); Declaration by the Group of 77 and China in preparation of the Sixth WTO Ministerial Conference , Hong Kong, China, 13 – 18 December 2005. Conclusions and Recommendations on the Ministers of Science and Technology of the Members States of the Group of 77, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3 September 2006.
        The Group of 77 also makes statements at various Main Committees of the General Assembly, ECOSOC and other subsidiary bodies, sponsors and negotiates resolutions and decisions at major conferences and other meetings held under the aegis of the United Nations dealing with international economic cooperation and development as well as the reform of the United Nations.
        Furthermore, the Group of 77 sponsors projects on South-South cooperation through funding from the Perez-Guerrero Trust Fund (PGTF) and promotes South-South trade through the Global System of Trade Preferences (GSTP).Back to TopPublications:
        The Group of 77 at the United Nations edited by Mourad Ahmia (Oxford University Press, New York – 2006). The Year Book of the Group of 77 edited by Mourad Ahmia, 2007 The Third World without Superpowers, edited by Karl Sauvant (Oceana Publications, New York, 1994). Journal of the Group of 77, periodical newsletter published in English. Thirty Years of the Group of 77 (1964 – 1994). South Centre publications, Geneva. The Group of 77 at Forty (1964 – 2004). South Centre publications, Geneva. Guide to DCDC: Supplement to the ECDC Handbook, 1983. Economic and Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries: the Group of 77 in Action, 2 vols. 1984. Raul Prebisch: Obras, 1919-1949, vols. III and IV, 1994, published in cooperation with the Raul Prebisch Foundation (Argentina). Guide to the Utilization of the Perez-Guerrero Trust Fund (PGTF), 1994.

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